Theoretical Framework Assignment:
Although you may not realize it, your practice has a theoretical framework. If you have not thought about this fully, use this adaptation of the method developed by Alligood (2014, p. 57) to determine which theoretical framework you use:
a.Consider the values and beliefs that guide your practice related to persons, environment, health, and nursing.
b.Develop a philosophy statement, built around those values and beliefs.
c.Review the assumptions of 5-10 theoretical frameworks, keeping in mind that your framework may not be a “nursing” theory.
The following lists may be helpful, although they are not all-inclusive:
More information on theories can be found in this book, which you may have on your bookshelf; there is also a CD of the book available free online; you will need to do a Google search of the title to find it:
Alligood, M.R. (2014). Nursing theory: Utilization & application (5th ed.).St.Louis: Elsevier Mosby.
d.Identify 2-3 frameworks that reflect your values and beliefs.
e.Determine which theoretical framework is the closest match to the way that you practice nursing. The name of the theory you choose should be the first heading of your paper.
1.Describe your chosen theory, making sure to address these items (use them as subheadings):
Theory statement (one sentence)
Relationships between concepts
Structure and organization (include a picture of the theory diagram)
Precision and Testability
Theory application in (your type of) practice
2.This is a 3 page paper; it should not be longer than 4 pages or shorter than 2.66 pages
3.Remember to follow all the APA rules, the 7th ed does allow the writer to write in 1st person now in addition to the usual 3rd person.
Theoretical Framework Assignment
Jean Watson, as a nurse theorist, proposed the theory of human caring. Through her practice in nursing and psychology, Watson recognized the impact of authentic caring of the patient and the health outcome that emerge from the caring process. She further suggests the importance of considering the caring process as part of the care environment that nurses develop to help their patients to heal and recover, physically and spiritually. Being human suggests that a person goes through various processes, including being “vulnerable, ill, cured, cared for, and healed” (Watson, 2008, 48). The theory highlights the reason why nurses enter the profession and practice in a caring environment. The model highlights the human side of nursing and the positive impact of human caring on patient and health outcomes. Caring is the central value and belief in nursing and underlies the worth of the nursing profession.
Watson (1999) suggested that “nursing is concerned with promoting health, preventing illness, caring for the sick, and restoring health.”
Watson defined three nursing concepts (metaparadigms): person, nursing, and health, leaving out the environment (the fourth metaparadigm). According to her theory, person or human being is the valued person that deserves to be cared for, nurtured, respected, understood, and helped. The human being is the completely functional integrated self. The whole person is more than the sum of their parts. Meanwhile, health is the high level of general mental, physical, and social functioning or the absence of disease. A health person has an optimal level of functioning due to the absence of illness. Nursing is the science of health-illness experience enabled by interactions between personal, professional, ethical, and scientific components (Watson, 2008). Instead of defining the environment, Watson suggested ten carative factors that are necessary for an effective caring environment.
Relationships between Concepts
The nursing theory concepts relates since they are interconnected in the way nursing care plays out in ensuring physical and spiritual healing in the person (patient). The theory relates to the entire world of nursing, putting emphasis on interpersonal processes between the nurse (caregiver) and person (patient). The nurse and person work in a supportive therapeutic environment, which enables the caring process and health outcome. The theory focuses on the nurse expresses care to the patient and the humanistic elements of nursing that is interconnected with scientific knowledge and nursing practice. Watson emphasized that caring is at the core of the nursing practice and the relationship with person, and should focus on health promotion as a holistic approach to health care (Alligood, 2014). Generally, the nurse should work with the person (patient) in a caring environment for optimum health outcomes.
Structure and Organization
Watson’s theory of human caring revolves around holistic approach to providing care to patients/family. She believed that, in additional to the emotional aspect of the nursing process, the nurse can make a huge difference in the whole of the person’s health. The theoretical structure shows the relationship between the four main concepts, person/human being, health, nursing, and environment (Alligood, 2014). The theorist acknowledged that quality care involves the nurse’s role in meeting patients’ needs medically and holistically. Thus, her theory is application in various scenarios that involve patient care. The figure below shows the structure and organization of Watson’s theory of human caring.
Precision and Testability
Watson’s theory of caring can be tested and evaluated empirically to inform its precision and applicability in research and practice. The theory was formulated for application in practice, informing the need for research to evaluate it and answer the question regarding its purpose. Research can help to understand the qualitative and quantitative dimensions of the three concepts and the ten carative factors. Precision is possible since nurses can establish the meaning of the concepts within the theory and how to apply them in their work. Besides, scholars and practitioners can collect data from the nursing environment to test the validity of the theory in modern practice. The empirical research also reveals that the three concepts and the carative factors are related to each other and to the caring process (Watson, 2012). Current research evidence reveals that Watson’s theory of caring was formulated to improve care and health promotion, a purpose that remains valid to-date.
Theory Application in Practice
Carative factors or caratas processes inform the application of Watson’s theory in nursing practice. The ten carative factors suggest that nursing practice should be characterized by loving-kindness, calmness, and genuineness, in enabling and cultivating a spiritual practice. The nurse should provide a caring environment informed by the spiritual and other diverse beliefs of the patient. The theory helps the nurse to develop a positive relationship with patient in a helping-trusting environment and express positive and negative feelings freely. The nurse should learn always and be willing to use the knowledge in creating an environment that supports spiritual and physical healing (Watson, 2012, 2). The theory proposes that the nurse practitioner should engage personal emotions, while meeting the health and physical needs in a spiritually open manner. Diversity is an important part of the nursing experience and nurses should embrace it in the caring relationship with patient.
Alligood, M.R. (2014). Nursing Theory: Utilization & Application (5th Ed.).St.Louis: Elsevier Mosby.
Watson (1999) Watson J. Nursing: Human Science And Human Care: A Theory Of Nursing. Boston: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Watson (2008) Watson J. Nursing: The Philosophy And Science Of Caring (revised edition). Boulder: University Press of Colorado
Watson, J. (2012). Human Caring Science—a Theory of Nursing (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.