Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., & Monson, C. M. (1998). Marital rape: Is the crime taken seriously without co-occurring physical abuse?. Journal of Family Violence, 13(4), 433-443.
Research on marital rape and related domestic violence is increasing due to the high rate of society’s problem. Langhinrichsen-Rohling and Monson (1998) revealed that people tend to blame the victims of marital rape, especially in the absence of a history of physical violence between husbands and wives. Besides, when a history of violence is lacking, people tend to minimize the seriousness of marital rape. The article relates to other readings that reveal a high rate of marital rape, especially indicating the high rate of society’s problem and lack of adequate reporting for fear of victimization. As a result, the article supports the evidence that many victims of marital rape suffer in silence, creating grounds for the increasing incidence. Although the study provides important evidence relating to attritions about rape, the authors appear to isolate marital rape from domestic violence. The article discusses the marital rape topic in isolation from physical violence in the domestic setting. The article raises important questions that should be addressed in future research, such as the role of gender differences in attributions about marital rape. For example, between men and women, who are more likely to diminish the seriousness of marital rape devoid of the history of husband-wife physical violence?
Parkhill, M. R., Abbey, A., & Jacques-Tiura, A. J. (2009). How do sexual assault characteristics vary as a function of perpetrators’ level of intoxication?. Addictive Behaviors, 34(3), 331-333.
Intoxication is an important factor in sexual violence since most people commit gender-based violence while drunk. Parkhill et al. (2003) realized that while researchers have identified the effect of alcohol on sexual violence, they have greatly neglected assessing if the amount consumed makes any difference. Their study revealed that the amount plays a key role because the seriousness of the incident differs between light drinkers and nondrinkers. Information in the article relates to other readings relating to the risk factors for sexual assault. The risk of assault increases with the level of intoxication, creating the need to develop interventions that target heavy drinking to reduce serious sex crimes in society. However, it is not clear whether individuals who commit sexual assault while intoxicated would do the same when sober. The article fails to provide clear information about the cognitive distortions that cause people to commit the crime to establish whether they would do the same when not under the influence of intoxication agents, such as alcohol. One of the questions that arise from the article is whether people who perpetrate sexual assault while intoxicated are at the risk of doing the same while sober. The question involves answering the question of whether intoxication is the risk factor for the crime.
Lawyer, S., Resnick, H., Bakanic, V., Burkett, T., & Kilpatrick, D. (2010). Forcible, drug-facilitated, and incapacitated rape and sexual assault among undergraduate women. Journal of American College Health, 58(5), 453-460.
The article focuses on the prevalence of drug-related sexual assault when compared to forcible assaults in society. According to the study by Lawyer et al. (2010), drug-related incidents are higher than forcible assaults on college campuses since most of them occur after alcohol consumption. The setting is very prone to sexual assault, especially among female students and perpetrated by male students and others with intimate relationships with the victim. The article relates to past lectures and readings regarding the risk factors for sexual assault among the youth. The researcher supports the claim that intoxication is a risk factor for sexual assault among the youth. Therefore, interventions to reduce the prevalence should focus on reducing the vulnerability emanating from intoxication. What is not clear in the article is whether the same findings would be evident in a different sample from the relatively small convenience sample obtained from female college students. The issue relates to the generalizability of findings to other settings outside college campuses. The question that arises from the article is whether intoxication is the only factor determining vulnerability to sexual assault on college campuses. The question is particularly important because drug-related sexual assaults were higher than drug-related sexual assaults.
Zurbriggen, E. L. (2009). Understanding and preventing adolescent dating violence: The importance of developmental, sociocultural, and gendered perspectives. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33(1), 30-33.
Dating violence is a common challenge in society, indicating the need for effective intervention to address it, reduce the prevalence, and protect potential victims from its detrimental effects. Zurbriggen (2009) provides critical insights on the root cause, the gendered perspective, and future research regarding the need for effective interventions to address the detrimental effects. The study relates to previous readings and research on the problematic impact of violence on victims. Dating violence is one of the common issues with negative psychological effects on victims, especially women. Therefore, the article is one of those that call for effective measures to address and protect people from becoming victims. However, the article fails to address other factors outside gender, such as psychological and social circumstances that place one at the risk of becoming a perpetrator or victim. Thus, more research is necessary to understand the multifaceted nature of dating violence and address it. An important question from the article is other important factors that affect the tendency of individuals to become victims of dating violence e and how the can be mitigated. Answering the question will help to respond to the question regarding effective measures or interventions.
East, P. L., Chien, N. C., Adams, J. A., Hokoda, A., & Maier, A. (2010). Links between sisters’ sexual and dating victimization: The roles of neighborhood crime and parental controls. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(6), 698.
Research should focus on protecting children from becoming victims of sexual and dating victimization. East et al. (2010) take an interesting perspective on sexual and dating victimization, the possibility of a prior experience of a sister becoming a risk factor for a younger female sibling to face the same experience. The findings affirmed the possibility of younger sisters becoming victims of sexual and dating victimization. The study relates to previous research and readings on the risk factors of sexual violence and the need for effective interventions to help potential and actual violence victims. The article provides a new perspective on the topic and the need for protective measures for victims and other girls and women in the same environment. However, the article fails to provide adequate information relating to the factors that increase the possibility of a female sibling’s future sexual violence once an older sister has experienced the same. The article leads to important questions to create a better understanding of the issue. For example, what are the environmental factors that place sisters at the risk of sexual violence and victimization? What effective interventions can society implement to reduce the risk and make neighborhoods safe for all girls and women?
Cromer, L. D., & Freyd, J. J. (2007). What influences believing child sexual abuse disclosures? The roles of depicted memory persistence, participant gender, trauma history, and sexism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31(1), 13-22.
Child memories remain a controversial topic, especially in terms of believing the incident of sex abuse. Cromer and Freyd (2007) shed light on the factors that determine the possibility of believing trauma report, such as child abuse in children, including gender, trauma history, and sexism. The study results are consistent with previous readings regarding child memory and the role of gender, history of trauma, and sexism in society, in the tendency to believe individuals who have experienced trauma related to child sex abuse. However, the study has a limitation in focus on many independent variables, affecting the possibility of evaluating them all in-depth. Besides, the article failed to explore the ages within which the incident occurs when investigating child memories of sex abuse. The article leaves important unanswered questions, such as the quantitative instead of subjective measure of child memories. For example, how can the researcher quantitatively measure child memories instead of focusing on participants’ perceptions to explore the factors that affect their believability? Answering the question will help compare the objective and subjective measures of childhood memories and their impact on finding solutions for children with historical trauma associated with sex abuse.
George, W. H., & Martínez, L. J. (2002). Victim blaming in rape: Effects of victim and perpetrator race, type of rape, and participant racism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26(2), 110-119.
George and Mart’ınez focus on victim-blaming in rape cases based on stereotypes about Black sexuality. Racial factors and racism play a key role in the tendency to blame the victim for a rape. The author highlights the unfortunate behavior that might affect the possibility of seeking help for rape because of the fear of being blamed and judged. The study relates to the stigma that has historically prevented rape victims from seeking interventions because they fear further victimization. The information relates to factors that hinder effective support and help for rape victims. However, the hindrances studied are limited to racial factors and racism and the way they hinder effective interventions. The findings’ generalizability to college students is another issue that should be addressed in future research. The article leads to important questions, such as whether the study focused on actual rape victims. Did the researcher generate information from actual rape victims to understand their victimization? Another question relates to actual racial balance in the sample that the researchers used to generate the data to avoid biases. Answering the questions will help to provide more objective data to determine victim blame in rape cases and suggest effective interventions.
Cambraia Windsor, L., Benoit, E., & Dunlap, E. (2010). Dimensions of oppression in the lives of impoverished black women who use drugs. Journal of Black Studies, 41(1), 21-39.
Black women have historically been victims of violence, and oppression in the United States and beyond. They have fought hard, but the problem remains with detrimental effects on their physical and mental wellbeing. Windsor et al. (2008) provides insight on the continued prevalence of gendered violence against black women in the United States from the perspective of multiple dimensions of oppression, especially among impoverished African American women. The article reveals various dimensions of oppression, such as classism, sexism, familism, racism, and drugism. The study relates to other readings and studies on gender-based violence in society, shedding light on risk factors and impact. The authors highlight the need for interventions to protect impoverished black women from continued oppression. However, the study fails to compare the prevalence of gendered violence between impoverished black women and other races, such as white, to have an objective view of the problem’s extent. Therefore, important discussion questions emerge in the topic: impoverished black women at a higher risk of gendered violence and oppression than women from other racial backgrounds? What are the possible measures to address the problem, focusing on the identified multiple dimensions? Answer to the question will help to address the historical issue of oppression and violence against women.
Odgers, C. L., Moretti, M. M., Burnette, M. L., Chauhan, P., Waite, D., & Reppucci, N. D. (2007). A latent variable modeling approach to identifying subtypes of serious and violent female juvenile offenders. Aggressive Behavior: Official Journal of the International Society for Research on Aggression, 33(4), 339-352.
Odgers et al. (2007). Focuses on a topic that is inadequately explored in research, the increasing prevalence of females committing serious and violent juvenile offenses. The authors shed light on the risk factors for the increasing number of girls committing various types of juvenile offenses, such as internalizing disorders, exposure to violence, affect dysregulation, and familial history of criminal behavior. The article relates to previous research on the psychological effects of criminality in girls and the need for effective interventions to protect them from detrimental effects of crime. The increasing number of girls in contact with the juvenile system is worrying and requires effective interventions. However, the article failed to compare female to male juvenile offenders to identify the possibility of a comparable increase in the rate of crime. Thus, important questions arise, such as whether the increase in juvenile offending is similar between females and males. Are females at a higher risk of offending, and if so, what are the unique factors that place girls at a higher risk than boys? Answers to the question will provide information regarding potential interventions to protect the most at-risk population, such as female juvenile offenders.
Cohen, J. N. (2008). Using feminist, emotion-focused, and developmental approaches to enhance cognitive-behavioral therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 45(2), 227.
Posttraumatic stress disorder is a common challenge among children victims of sexual abuse. The victims suffer from serious trauma that affect their in the short- and long-term and require extensive interventions to overcome and gain resilience. The article provides important insight into the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions to help individuals overcome the negative effect of their experience. The article informs current efforts to help victims of sexual abuse become resilient and live a positive life. The article relates to previous readings and research on effective interventions for individuals dealing with different psychological distress types. Cognitive-behavioral interventions are among the most common interventions for different types of trauma. While the article provides critical information, it only focuses on posttraumatic stress disorder, while there are many other adverse effects of childhood sexual abuse. For example, the question that remains unanswered is whether the intervention can help victims of childhood sexual abuse with different types of mental effects of the experience. For example, can the same intervention help children with anxiety disorders resulting from childhood sexual abuse to recover? The information helps develop comprehensive interventions and supports for victims of childhood sexual abuse.
Ullman, S. E., & Townsend, S. M. (2008). What is an empowerment approach to working with sexual assault survivors?. Journal of Community Psychology, 36(3), 299-312.
Previous research reveals an increase in the number of victims of sexual assault, creating the need for effective interventions to help survivors overcome the impact. Ullman and Townsend (2008) provide critical insight into an effective empowerment approach to help victims of rape and work with victims of sexual abuse. A “feminist” empowerment approach is proven to be an effective intervention because most victims are women. The article relates to previous research on effective interventions to help victims of rape experiencing the detrimental effect of the trauma. Such an individual requires effective interventions to empower them and help them to become more resilient. However, while the approach might help women from the feminist approach, it leaves the question of whether similar strategies can help other victims who are not women. The article leads to the discussion question, such as the impact of the gender-biased interventions to help victims of rape and sexual assault, considering that they are not limited to women. What further research is necessary to improve the efficacy of available interventions and make them more gender-neutral and help all victims of sex-related violations? Answers to the question will point to future research and generate effective interventions to address effects of sexual assault and rape.
11 Migration and Dislocation
Migration is usually a major change in society with considerable psychological impact associated with the separation. However, the impact depends on whether the migration is voluntary, such as individual pursuing education or career opportunities, or forceful, such as seeking refuge to escape the impact of war in the sending country. The article provides critical information that supports the psychological impact of processes, such as migration and the trauma that emanates from the process. The information points to a need for effective interventions for individuals who have experienced traumas and mental disorders due to immigration. However, the article is blurred regarding the differences between the type of mental trauma and psychological outcomes between people experiencing voluntary or forceful migration. Therefore, future research must establish the differences between the kind of trauma and mental effects of the two types of migration. The question emerging from the chapter is whether individuals experiencing forced migration, such as refugees and undocumented immigrants, experience worse traumas and psychological effects than those who migrate voluntarily. Another question is whether interventions to help migrants integrate should consider the type of migration or target all individuals the same way.
Jones, L., Engstrom, D. W., Hilliard, T., & Diaz, M. (2007). Globalization and human trafficking. J. Soc. & Soc. Welfare, 34, 107.
Globalization presents numerous opportunities but also critical challenges that should be understood and addressed. For example, Jones et al. (2007) highlight one of the most critical issues associated with labor’s international movement, the high risk of human trafficking. The analysis includes the dynamics and process of trafficking, including the detrimental effect on health and wellbeing. Most of the victims of human trafficking suffer from long term psychological effects of the trauma. The article relates to others, explaining the psychological impact of migration and human trafficking and the need for interventions to support victims to overcome the trauma. Research supports the argument of the adverse effects of human trafficking with a focus on findings practical solutions. However, the article assumed a social work perspective, leaving out mental health focus. Thus, the critical questions associated with the topic are whether human trafficking’s social work perspective of human trafficking is sufficiently sufficient to address the complicated global challenge. What other views are necessary to unravel the mystery of international labor mobility and its impacts, such as human trafficking? What are the psychological implications of human trafficking and effective interventions? The questions will help to gain a deeper understanding of the complex human trafficking problem to inform interventions.
Graham-Bermann, S. A., & Brescoll, V. (2000). Gender, power, and violence: Assessing the family stereotypes of the children of batterers. Journal of Family Psychology, 14(4), 600.
Many children live in families where they experience domestic abuse regularly, with detrimental short- and long-term effects. Physical violence and emotional abuse are interrelated in families because they all occur within the family dynamics. Graham-Bermann and Brescoll (2000) highlight family role stereotyping and beliefs in accepting various damaging treatments such as family violence. The article relates to others that focus on the prevalence and effects of family violence among children and other members. The information relates to the unacceptable violence in families, which affect the most vulnerable members, especially children. Many families accept violence against others as a function of gender, power, and violence, oblivious to the behavior’s detrimental outcomes. However, the article does not delineate the family’s common types of violence and their detrimental short- and long-term effects. Important questions arise from the article, such as which are the common types of violence and who are the leading victims of the behavior. Which are the effects of and effective interventions to help victims of domestic violence, especially in families where the behavior seems acceptable? Answers to the question will help to mitigate one of the most stubborn, and most detrimental, problems in society, domestic violence.
Straus, M. A., & Stewart, J. H. (1999). Corporal punishment by American parents: National data on prevalence, chronicity, severity, and duration, in relation to child and family characteristics. Clinical child and family psychology review, 2(2), 55-70.
Corporal punishment is prevalent in society, warranting extensive research to establish its effect and the need for effective interventions to stop it and protect children and teenagers from its detrimental impact. Unfortunately, society appears to ignore or accept the behavior. Straus and Stewart (1999) recognize the need for psychology and sociology textbooks to stop ignoring the seriousness of corporal punishment instead of handling it as a common socialization experience in America to propose effective interventions. The article aligns with other previous readings associated with the psychological impacts of major socialization experiences on children and adults. The authors provide important insight into necessary changes in society to improve children and adults’ wellbeing and provide them with a safe environment. However, it has a blurry aspect that future research should address, such as the tendency to ignore the definition of corporal punishment to differentiate between acceptable and unacceptable forms of punishment in society. Since misbehavior is necessary to develop good members of society, an important question that emerges in the article is whether there are acceptable and unacceptable forms of punishment. The questions further requires the need to address the line between acceptable and unacceptable punishments.
Dutra, L., Bureau, J. F., Holmes, B., Lyubchik, A., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2009). Quality of early care and childhood trauma: A prospective study of developmental pathways to dissociation. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 197(6), 383.
The article focuses on dissociation in young adulthood, whose main risk factor is poor parental responsiveness in infancy. Verbal abuse during childhood is also connected to the development of dissociation later in life. Dutra et al. (2009) provide critical information regarding the role of parental emotional responsiveness in eradicating dissociation during adulthood. The article relates to other readings and previous research on the impact of experiences during infancy and childhood on future psychological outcomes. Negative experiences, such as lack of attachment and trauma, cause major challenges later in life. Thus, research points to the need for interventions for at-risk individuals to prevent adulthood crisis. However, the article has a limitation in using self-report of child abuse due to the lack of a means to validate and quantify the information. Besides, childhood memories and past experiences can be forgotten easily. Thus, the article leaves major unanswered questions, such as obtaining quantifiable information about lack of adequate attachment during infancy and verbal abuse during childhood to reveal their impact on dissociation during adulthood. Answers to the questions helps to inform interventions and support to address the problem in society.
Music, G. (2009). Neglecting neglect: some thoughts about children who have lacked good input, and are ‘undrawn’and ‘unenjoyed’. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 35(2), 142-156.
Children’s experience early in life determines their future outcomes. Music (2009) sheds light on the impact of emotional neglect during the early years of life on long-term effects, such as future psychological wellbeing. The article highlights the importance of early-life attachment and the negative impact of neglect and other issues, such as child abuse and long-term implications. The article relates to other readings that indicate the importance of positive attachment early in life to prevent long-term psychological and emotional effects. Research suggests that many victims of childhood neglect and abuse carry the negative repercussions to their adulthood. However, the study does not provide adequate evidence of an effective diagnostic category or theoretical ideas to understand the real impact of neglect in childhood. Without such tools, questions arise regarding the efficacy of current interventions of working with children, victims of neglect, and abuse. Important questions arise in the article, such as what quantifiable tools can help to diagnose and understand the long-term effect of neglect in childhood. What is additional research necessary to design effective diagnostic tools or theoretical ideas to improve interventions when working with children who are victims of neglect and childhood abuse?
Shengold, L.L. (n.d.). Child Abuse and Deprivation Soul Murder
The reading relates to the impact of experiences during the child development process on later outcomes. Aggressive and sexual impulses in childhood are more critical in determining developmental outcomes than early deprivation experiences. The article suggests the need to assess the impact of real and perceived experiences on children as they develop to implement effective interventions. The reading support previous work on the impact of childhood experiences on future outcomes. Therefore, the article is useful in informing effective interventions to overcome negative childhood experiences’ negative effect. However, the article focuses on an area that is challenging to quantify, such as childhood fantasies, and its impact on future outcomes. Children have numerous fantasies, many of which are challenging to study, affecting any research results trying to understand their implications on wellbeing. The reading leaves various unanswered questions, such as how a researcher can quantify childhood fantasies and their impact on future outcomes. Besides, how can one intervene to mitigate the impact of childhood fantasies on future outcomes? Answering the questions provides the possibility of effective interventions to protect children from future negative outcomes.
Cubbin, C., LeClere, F. B., & Smith, G. S. (2000). Socioeconomic status and the occurrence of fatal and nonfatal injury in the United States. American journal of public health, 90(1), 70.
Cubbin et al. (2000) explored the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in the risk of injury in the United States. The article provides critical insight regarding the potential of a high level of injury-related mortality and morbidity among working-age adults in the country. They revealed that socioeconomic status is a significant factor in injury among the target population. The study relates to previous readings and research on the risk factors for violence and injuries among the various population in the United States and elsewhere. The study is limited to the predictors, such as socioeconomic status in predicting the problem. However, the study leaves out other essential predictors, such as drugs and alcohol, when determining the risk of injuries among working-age adults. Besides, the population of the study is limited, restricting the evidence to a small sample. Some of the discussion questions emanating from the reading include whether socioeconomic status is the only predictor of injury morbidity and mortality in the United States. Another problem is whether the outcome showing the role of socioeconomic status in injury can be generalized to other populations, such as those younger or older than the working-age group.
Vicarious Traumatization: How Trauma Therapy affect the Therapist.
While therapists play a key role in helping victims of various psychological traumas, research has neglected the impact of the process on their wellbeing. The chapter provides important insight regarding the impact of trauma therapy on the therapist. The changes on their being and view of life are profound when they embark on helping victims of trauma recover. The readings relates to the few study findings about the impact of the therapeutic process on the therapist. Even though they are trained to handle therapy professionally, dealing with the profound trauma for long changes them completely and affect their wellbeing. Unfortunately, many enter the field without an adequate understanding of the impact on their wellbeing. While the chapter provides critical information about the impact of trauma therapy on the therapist, it leaves out the theoretical and practical understanding of potential mechanisms to overcome it. How well can trauma therapists prepare themselves to deal with the detrimental impact of their work on their mental health and wellbeing? Are there effective interventions available to help trauma therapists to overcome the changes in their lives due to their profession?
Bell, E. L. (1992). Myths, stereotypes, and realities of Black women: A personal reflection. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 28(3), 363-376.
The black woman has historically remained a target of oppression and violence. Bell (1992) uses case studies, such as Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court during the .age of the feminist movement and the implication of black women’s experience in the United States. The article further highlights the 1992 political arena changes, including the high prevalence of sexual harassment incidents. The article relates to many others that have indicated most of the oppression and violence against black women, including sexual harassment. The readings reveal the vulnerability of black women, which places them at the risk of victimization, physically and sexually. While the article indicates some critical moments in the history of oppression against black women, it lacks a detailed analysis of its history and trends over the years. The information on the effect of the oppression and sexual violence against black women also lacks in the article. Important discussion questions that arise in the article include: what is the history of oppression against black women in the United States? What are some of the short- and long-term effects of gender-based violence and oppression against black women in the US? What has been done over the years to mitigate the impact of oppression and sexual violence against black women in the country?