The size of the Prison Population
The number of inmates in the correction facilities in Ohio was 52,233 in 2016. The majority of the detainees in the state are adults who make up the approximately 17 percent higher compared to the national average. There were more men than women among the offenders in the correction facilities in the state. The rate of incarceration in Ohio is estimated at 449 compared to the national average which is 385 per 100,000. The state has 37,020 offenders, characterized by the Ohio Adult Parole Authority as being under supervision. Some offenders are on probation, a total of 243,710 adults. The data indicates the numbers in contact with the correction system by 2016.
Security Classifications in the Prison System
Inmate classification is one of the security mechanisms that are used within the Ohio correction facilities. The classification system seeks to place the offenders in their appropriate place based on the kind of offense they have committed. The different security levels within the system allow for different levels of security instituted depending on the kind of offenders placed therein. The personnel employed in the different levels differ. The classification system is meant to ensure the security of the inmates, the personnel, the institution and the community at large. There is a movement from the higher levels of security to the lower levels, depending on the behavior of the inmate while in the correction system. There is an ongoing assessment of the security needs of the inmates to determine the appropriate level of security needed. The guards are assigned the duties to ensure security depending on the level of security involved. Hence, the risk of insecurity or danger to the inmates and the personnel is reduced to a great deal.
Breakdown of the System’s Population
There are different populations within the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction depending on the characteristics of the offenders. One of the categories is the adult population held within the adult jails and detention facilities. The adult population comprises both men and women, who are also detained separately. The second group of the population is that of the offenders under supervision and those on probation. Those are the offenders within the correction system, but who are out of incarceration, but still under supervision. These individuals have not completed their prison time and can be taken back if they violate the conditions of their release. The last group is that of juveniles who are incarcerated in different facilities designed to cater for the needs of the juvenile offenders. The juveniles are offenders who have not achieved the age of the majority (18 years).
Services and Programs
Various programs and services are offered at the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction to make the offenders productive members of the society after they reenter the community. Among the services are training and technical support to develop educational and vocational skills to be able to access employment opportunities once they have left the population. Besides developing the skills to access employment, the offenders are provided with life skills to make it possible for them to have a positive life after their prison life. Anger management skills are imparted on the prisoners to enhance their effectiveness in dealing with anger and other emotional issues that might encourage them to offend. As rehabilitative services, the offenders are offered counseling and therapy, depending on the mental and emotional challenges that the individual offenders face. Classification is done based on the challenges that the offenders face.
Facilities Covered by the System
In all the counties across the state, there are correction facilities where the inmates are placed depending on the different formulas of categorizing them. There are 88 counties within the state. A survey done in 2013 indicated that the number of jails in the state was 106. There are approximately 26 correction facilities in the state. There were also adult detention facilities in the counties. The correction facilities for adults are separated, different for the two genders. Besides, the state has a number of juvenile correction facilities for holding the juvenile offenders, separate from the adult correction facilities. The facilities are spread throughout the state to ensure that they can meet the demand for their services because of the widespread crime.
California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation
The size of the prison population
The population of the corrections facilities in the state has been growing over the years. Also, looking from the trends, it is projected that the population will continue to grow. The data available on the website provides statistics of the population in the period between June 30, 2016, and June 30, 2017. In 2016, the parole population was 5,857 females, 122,463 males and a total of 128,144. In 2017, the population of women went down to 5,674 while the population of men increased to 123,715 and the overall total of 128,389. The population of male adult population in the state was 123,325 inmates in 2015 and 122,463 in 2016. The female adult population was 5,681 in 2016, down from the 5,857 number in 2015. Among the juveniles, the female population in 2015 was 25 and males were 665. In 2016, there was an increase in the number of males to 674 and a slight increase in females to 26.
Security Classifications in the Prison System
Security is an important condition of the corrections system in the state. To ensure security, the classification of the offenders is critical. There are different correction facilities for female and male prison facilities, which mean that the two genders are safe without the security challenges posed by imprisoning them together. Also, the system has a classification system to separate serious offenders from those in for minor crimes. From the website, it is possible to search for the name of an offender based on the type of crime one is in for. Besides classification based on the nature of crime and gender, another security feature in the system is guiding of the entire prison systems. There are major security details within the cells and guiding the perimeter to ensure a high level of security. Criminal history records are made available, such as for the sex offenders, to ensure the security of the community.
The System’s Population
The department of corrections is revealed to hold different populations of offenders. The corrections facility is available for adult population (men and women over the age of 18 years), juvenile population (offenders under the age of 18 years), and parole population (individuals who are out on parole and have not completed their prison sentence). Another category that is available on the website is that of offender facing death sentence. The organization of the different populations is aimed at revealing the changes in the trends within the corrections facilities in the state. It also shows the differences in the management of the different populations, for accountability purposes, because it would not be effective to manage all the offenders together. Data available on the website separates the population and projections based on the three categories of offenders.
Services and Programs
There are various programs that are set in place to ensure rehabilitation of the offenders who come into contact with the system. The mission is to make sure that the prisoners leave the system better than they come in. The prisons have in place rehabilitative and training programs to help the offenders to develop educational and life skills. They obtain education and job training. They are trained to secure employment once they get out of the system. They are also trained to develop confidence through rehabilitative programs and services. The programs are available in the prisons and those on parole. The inmates also are provided with therapy through anger management counseling which is critical for them to avoid re-offending once they are reintegrated back into the society. However, the offender services are different from one prison to another and across prison populations.
Facilities Covered by the System
The facilities within the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation are varied depending on the kind of population held therein. The correctional facilities are categorized in three adult institutions, juvenile institutions, and youth conservation camps. The number of adult institutions is more and spread across the state. The juvenile and youth conservation camps are fewer than the adult, explained by the fact that the population of the adult offenders is greater than that of the juvenile offenders. From the map of the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, it appears that every region in the state has a correction facility for the adults, but for the juveniles, the correction facilities are few.
While some elements are common to the two correction systems, there are also many ways in which the two systems differ. The size of the population in the two systems is different. Evidence from the websites indicate that the Californian prison population is larger compared to the prison population in Ohio. This could be potentially explained by the fact that the rate of crime in the two states differ. In terms of the gender, the two states have a larger male population in prison compared to the number of women, but again, the California records a bigger population in both genders. The population of juveniles in the correction facilities is given for California, but the Ohio website does not contain information on the number of juveniles within the correction facilities. The information is clearer on the California system’s website compared to the information found in Ohio online platform.
Security is important for the two correction systems, but the way it is detailed in the website differs. In the case of the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction, the security details are clearer compared to the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation website. In the first case, there is a clear explanation of the way a classification is used as the basis for ensuring a high level of security for the inmates, the institution, the personnel and community in general. The security system is also founded on discipline and behavior of the inmates in the case of Ohio. On the contrary, the second case does not clearly state how the security details are provided. However, the two indicate that there is a classification of the offenders on the basis of gender to ensure that the inmates and the personnel are protected. Security is also maintained in the nature of guide kept in all the correction facilities.
The Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction and the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation have a clear breakdown of the prison population. However, the way the breakdown is detailed in the two websites differs. The former uses different terms in stating the different populations held within the facilities. There are three sections of the population, although the website gives details for two. The two are the adult corrections and the department dealing with the prisoners under supervision and probation. The juvenile system is not well detailed, including the population in the corrections facilities. The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation also sets clear the category of population held in the coercion facilities in three groups. The three are the adults, those on parole, and the juveniles. The categories are named differently for the two systems, but they infer the same populations of inmates.
The two correctional systems have in place programs and services aimed at making the inmates better than when they entered the system. The rehabilitative programs and services, as the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation website refers to them, are meant to improve the lives of the inmates in terms of vocational and life skills. The Ohio website refers to the rehabilitation as the services offered to the inmates to improve their lives and to better their reintegration into the society after they have served their terms. The Californian system offers anger management counseling to promote the emotional and mental capability of the inmates. The two systems have the services implemented around training, education, and counseling for all the inmates, depending on their mental and emotional needs. They are also meant to ensure that the prisoners do not go out of the system as the same people who came. In this case, they are given better chances to improve their lives.
The two correctional systems have facilities spread across the states to cater for the correctional needs of the regions where they are located. However, the number of correctional facilities is not similar across the two states. California has a larger number of correctional facilities compared to Ohio. The correctional facilities tend to vary on the basis of the kind of prisoners that are held therein. Hence, there are facilities that are meant for adult populations and those which are meant for juveniles. The categorization is the same for the two states, even if the number differs. The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation is revealed to operate the state institutions, while at the same time overseeing various community correctional camps and facilities, and monitoring those who are out on parole as they reintegrate back into the society. Hence, the department has a diversity of facilities that it oversees.
The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. Available at www.cdcr.ca.gov/
The Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction. Available at www.drc.ohio.gov/