Strengthening families program is a group-based intervention aimed at providing family skills. Training sessions in this program provide parenting and children’s life skills. The second program entails play and learning strategy. It is an intervention that seeks to help parents develop the right skills and traits of interacting with toddlers and infants. The third program is a nurturing parenting program, which is a cluster evidence-based intimate intervention aimed at reducing abusive and neglectful parenting practices and nurturing excellent parenting skills.
All three programs provide family and parenting outcomes. The key difference between the three programs is that strengthening family program does not enhance language and literacy child outcomes. At the same time, the play and learning strategies fail to facilitate social and emotional competence in child outcomes, while the nurturing parenting programs provide primary child outcomes. Still, it fails to encourage language and literacy outcomes.