Explain in detail what is meant by the RNR approach to reducing recidivism and whether you think this program has a chance of succeeding in your community.
The RNR (risk-need-responsivity) model is a popular approach used in criminology to assist in the development of recommendations that explain the treatment of each prisoner’s needs. Specifically, it entails the risk they present, as well as the ideal environment for the prisoner to reduce cases of recidivism. Therefore, the model focuses on three significant principles, namely; risk principle, need principle, and responsivity principle.
Different offenders have diverse risk patterns of recidivism. The risk principle offers a solution when creating appropriate interventions for the lawbreakers. Naturally, each offender has a specific set of dynamics when it comes to criminogenic needs. In such cases, the need principle develops interventions that target individual results in an attempt to achieve the most appropriate outcome. Due to the uniqueness of the criminals, the effectiveness of the modes of intervention differ greatly in reducing recidivism. As a result, RNR model incorporates both cognitive-behavioral and behavioral interventions to achieve the best result in reducing reoffending.
According to cognitive-behavioral intervention, individuals’ thoughts determine their feelings and behavior. Therefore, CBT assesses the offender’s conduct in an attempt to identify possible risk factors that would trigger their cognitive processes towards making decisions that would lead to re-offense. Lawbreakers’ needs are included in the intervention by equipping them with skills that enhance their emotional regulation and anger management, as well as logic and decision-making. The intervention also strengthens the youth’s moral beliefs when responding to ethical dilemmas through their involvement in role-playing and discussions. RNR model has proved that therapeutic programs are more effective than control-oriented programs since the rate of recidivism in my community has reduced as offenders who had a history of aggressive and violent behavior know how to manage their anger.
Identify two recommendations for research that should be conducted to increase our understanding of how to successfully implement prevention programs and explain why each research activity is needed.
Over the three years, many youths in their adolescent age have been arrested for crimes and substance abuse. Cases of school dropouts have increased among the youths in junior high school. Incidences of petty crimes have also risen, as evidenced by the reports at the local police station. If the situation is not rectified, the rate of school dropout will steadily increase, as well as the level of insecurity in the community. Substance use among youths has necessitated them to engage in petty crimes to support their habits. Initially, they steal money from their parents at home and when they cannot get enough, they result in pickpocketing from unsuspecting members of the public or snatching women handbags. If the situation remains the same, soon the youths will be using guns to rob people and even kill them in the process.
Parents have left the responsibility of guiding their children to religious leaders who only attend the church on Sundays and without follow up in the rest of the week. Parents are also sitting back and waiting for the government to rectify their children’s behavior in the event they get arrested. These strategies could be helpful with parents’ involvement in the welfare of their teenagers. It is important to develop an all-inclusive intervention approach that will not only prevent children from engaging in crime, but also equip them with the necessary skills to help them in the future.
The community should embrace Life Skills Training (LST) and Youth Inclusion Program (YIP). The programs will equip the youth with information on prevention and drug rejection skills. The strategy will also help in the promotion of anti-drug norms. Consequently, the youths will develop their general social and personal self-management skills. The reason for adopting these interventions is to help the youths to stop engaging in crimes and substance abuse. The involvement is not only affordable but will also enhance the relationship between parents and children. Another beneficial aspect of these strategies is that the parents also learn these skills.
Describe why program developers may be ineffective in disseminating their interventions and identify three actions they could take to increase the “dissemination readiness” of their programs.
Factors that lead to ineffective dissemination of interventions are lack of finances and human resources. The process of developing an arbitrament comprises numerous research processes before its implementation. The study covers various institutions for its validity and this would require government approval; hence, the developer will also be required to have a human resource department for the entire process. The department entails staffing, development, compensation, safety and health, employees, as well as labor relations. The developer need to test the program in ‘real-world’ conditions to get a comprehensive knowledge of how the process is implemented. The external validity of the mediation must be evaluated to understand its effects across various populations and contexts. There are numerous steps that a program developer can take to increase the dissemination readiness of their program. For example, conducting more effective evaluations, ensuring that the local authorities are involved in careful planning for its implementation, and understanding the underlying potential for adaptations to increase effectiveness.
In testing the effectiveness of the program, community involvement in the program will help in analyzing the intervention under the ‘real-world’ condition and its external validity. Public involvement will help in building the capacity of local communities, as well as increasing the dissemination of the prevention programs, sustainability, and implementation fidelity. The developer must be conversant with the potential for adaptation that will assist in increasing intervention effectiveness, such as government collaboration and funding the implementation process. The backing will assist the program developers in building a large scale capacity in the dissemination of effective mediation.
Recommend two actions that local practitioners should take when engaging in crime prevention efforts.
Practitioners should take actions that are significant in crime prevention efforts. Particularly, taking time to select the most appropriate program that meets the local needs is important. In addition, developing and utilizing a system that is user-friendly in the collection, storage, and analysis of data on the implementation of effective interventions of crime prevention should be at the forefront. Notably, one of the factors that reduce the effectiveness of an intervention is duplication. Whenever the practitioner takes time to develop an intervention, it gives them enough time to critically evaluate the existing approaches using the available data. The analysis helps to determine whether the intervention is serving its purpose. Practitioner’s evaluation may include carrying out a survey through the engagement of the community, whereby the effectiveness of the existing programs will be recorded. In addition, the leader will also identify the existing gaps in the interventions. Notably, the social worker is responsible for developing strategies that will help cater to the existing gaps since the inefficiencies may be leading to non-performance of mediations.
Lack of a user-friendly system of data collection has greatly affected the crime prevention efforts. Therefore, social workers should take upon themselves to simplify the data collection system. Notably, effective data collection enhances crime prevention efforts. The information enhances collective responsibility in problem-solving and micro-targeting the intervention and problem. For instance, the availability of comprehensive data will help in attracting relevant organizations to invest in research and evaluation. Therefore, practitioners’ contribution in crime prevention efforts will help in spreading awareness in the community about the existing intervention programs. In addition, the efforts will identify and assign the community with roles that enhance the effectiveness of the interventions.