“Using a mass media campaign to raise women’s awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer: cross-sectional pre-intervention and post-intervention evaluation surveys.”
Dixon et al. (2015) conducted a scientific evaluation of the effectiveness of a “mass media campaign to raise women’s awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer” (1). The article is an academic source because it is a published research report. It meets the criteria because it is published in a scholarly journal, BMJ Open, which means that it has undergone the peer-review process. The process suggests that it has met the standards for accuracy and quality. Besides, it is a product of empirical research involving the collection and analysis of data to inform findings.
The article was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a population-based, statewide public health communication campaign. The study used a cross-sectional tracking survey, which met the criteria for validity and reliability having been used successfully in previous research. They used pre and post-campaign evaluation surveys to generate qualitative and quantitative data to establish the effectiveness of the campaign ad. They generated relevant data to assess whether the ad was effective in creating the target change in behavior among the target population.
The pre-intervention and post-intervention evaluation design had some strengths and limitations. One of the strengths is that it integrated baseline assessment of the knowledge and intention of women concerning alcohol and cancer. Besides, cross-sectional samples provided reliable and valid data for the study. Nonetheless, it lacked a control group to compare the results with the intervention group, which was a limitation. The limitation affected the results because the evaluators could not identify the secular (offline) trends related to the research outcome. The researchers could have used an alternative to track changes after the campaign by monitoring pre-intervention and post-intervention obtained from the cohort.
“Are you scared yet? Evaluating fear appeal messages in tweets about the tips campaign.”
Emery, Szczypka, Abril, Kim, and Vera (2014) evaluated the effectiveness of “Tips from Former Smokers,” a campaign ad launched by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in March 2012. The report is an empirical study published in a peer-reviewed journal, Journal of Communication. The fact that the article appeared in the journal means that it underwent a review by academic experts to prove its quality, accuracy, and credibility. It provides strong evidence to support the effectiveness, or lack thereof, of the campaign ad.
The report provided an outcome of the evaluation of the $54 million national campaign launched in the United States, targeting people with lasting health effects of smoking. The evaluators collected and assessed Tips-related tweets during the period when the Tips ads were broadcasted in the US. The study used an approach that achieved rigor in the collection and analysis of big data. The evaluation would help the evaluator to collect both qualitative and quantitative data through the new media that met the criteria for reliability and validity.
The method of the study has some strengths and limitations. One of the strengths is the use of an effective research strategy that took advantage of the fast diffusion of new media. The method allows the collection of adequate data to evaluate the campaign ad. Twitter provides an adequate focus group to assess a focused topic. However, the technique has some limitations, including the restriction in the diffusion of new media, such as Twitter among the adult population in the United States. Therefore, it would limit the amount of data collected from social media. Besides, it would provide the views of a few members of the target population.
Effectiveness of Campaign
The current campaign ad aims at communicating to the youth about the dangers of opioid abuse (Capurro et al., 2014). It will use social media, Facebook, to target the American youth. It is expected that the ad will reach over 80 percent of the youth.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Measures
The measures that will be used include the number of youths who will access the ad and those who will read and understand. The measure is useful to determine the effectiveness of the media and the message. However, social media might limit access.
Proposed Research Measures
The study will use a social media survey to measure the success and effectiveness of the campaign ad. The survey will measure the people who have access, and hence, read the ad. The evaluation will measure message acceptance, rejection, or disregard.
Sample and Sampling
The sample will include American youth with access to social media, preferably Facebook. The implementer expects to reach about 80 percent of the youths who use social media.
The Sampling Calculation Method
Considering the fluidity of Facebook users, the survey will not involve the calculation of the sample. The research anticipates reaching over 80 percent of the youths in the country who are currently using social media.
The Statistical Methods
The study will use content-coding to code and analyze social media responses.
The Validity and Reliability of Measures
I will enhance the validity and reliability of measures by researching other studies that have used similar measures as well as conducting a pilot study.
The Strengths and Limitations of the Evaluation Research Proposal
The proposal will take advantage of the vast data available on social media to evaluate the campaign ad. However, it will be limited by the fact that not every youth has access to social media.
The results of the study might hinder generalizability because of the targeted social media message. The same message might not be communicated effectively using other media channels.