Factors that affect fertility (STDs): Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can affect fertility in both males and females. In females, STDs can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can lead to scarring and damage to the fallopian tubes. This scarring can prevent the sperm from reaching the egg or can prevent the fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus. In males, STDs can cause epididymitis, which can lead to blockage of the vas deferens, the tube that carries sperm from the testicles to the urethra.
Why inflammatory markers rise in STD/PID: Inflammatory markers such as sed rate and C-reactive protein rise in STD/PID due to the body’s response to the infection. Inflammation is the body’s response to infection or injury, and these markers indicate the presence of inflammation.
Why prostatitis and infection happens: Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland and can be caused by a bacterial infection. Bacteria can enter the prostate gland through the urethra, spread from the bladder, or enter through the bloodstream. The most common bacteria that cause prostatitis are Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Causes of systemic reaction: A systemic reaction can occur when the body’s immune system responds to an infection or inflammation throughout the body. This response can lead to symptoms such as fever, chills, and an increased heart rate.
Why a patient would need a splenectomy after a diagnosis of ITP: ITP, or immune thrombocytopenic purpura, is a condition in which the body’s immune system destroys platelets, leading to a decreased platelet count and an increased risk of bleeding. In severe cases, a splenectomy may be recommended to remove the spleen, which is responsible for the destruction of platelets in ITP.
Anemia and the different kinds of anemia (i.e., micro and macrocytic): Anemia is a condition in which there are not enough red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood. Microcytic anemia is a type of anemia in which the red blood cells are smaller than normal and may be caused by iron deficiency. Macrocytic anemia is a type of anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than normal and may be caused by vitamin B12 or folate deficiency. In this scenario, the patient’s CBC indicates a normal hemoglobin and hematocrit, so there is no evidence of anemia.