Assignment: adaptive response | Nursing homework help
Scenario: Jennifer, a 2-year-old female with a fever and sore throat
Pathophysiology: Jennifer’s symptoms, including fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes, are consistent with a common childhood illness known as pharyngitis, which is inflammation of the pharynx. The most common cause of pharyngitis in children is a viral infection, such as the common cold or flu. However, in some cases, it can be caused by a bacterial infection, such as group A streptococcus (GAS).
Associated alterations: The inflammatory response to the infection causes Jennifer’s body temperature to increase, resulting in a fever. The erythematous and swollen tonsils, as well as the tender lymph nodes, are signs of the immune system’s response to the infection. Jennifer’s increased heart rate and respiratory rate are also adaptive responses to the infection, as her body is working to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the affected areas and remove waste products.
Scenario: John, a 55-year-old male with a history of smoking and shortness of breath
Pathophysiology: John’s symptoms, including shortness of breath, cough, and history of smoking, suggest a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a chronic lung disease that typically develops as a result of long-term exposure to irritants such as tobacco smoke.
Associated alterations: COPD is characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, which leads to difficulty breathing. The inflammatory response in the lungs causes the airways to thicken and produce excess mucus, making it difficult for air to flow in and out of the lungs. John’s shortness of breath is a result of decreased oxygen delivery to the body’s tissues, while his cough is a reflexive response to clear the airways of mucus. Over time, the inflammation and narrowing of the airways can lead to lung damage and decreased lung function.
Scenario: Maria, a 40-year-old female with abdominal pain and vomiting
Pathophysiology: Maria’s symptoms, including abdominal pain and vomiting, are consistent with acute gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestines typically caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
Associated alterations: The inflammatory response in the gastrointestinal tract can cause Maria’s abdominal pain, while the vomiting is a reflexive response to clear the stomach of irritants. The infection can also cause diarrhea, which is a result of the body’s attempt to flush out the harmful bacteria or viruses. Maria may experience dehydration as a result of the fluid loss from vomiting and diarrhea, which can lead to electrolyte imbalances and other complications if left untreated.