Part 1: Common Respiratory Complaints
- Using OLDCARTS, what questions would have been asked as part of the medical history?
OLDCARTS is an acronym used to gather information about a patient’s symptoms. The letters stand for Onset, Location, Duration, Character, Aggravating/Alleviating factors, Radiation, Timing, and Severity. In this case, the following questions would have been asked as part of the medical history:
- Onset: When did the cough start?
- Location: Where does the patient feel the cough?
- Duration: How long has the cough been present?
- Character: What type of cough does the patient have?
- Aggravating/Alleviating factors: What makes the cough worse or better?
- Radiation: Does the cough extend to other parts of the body?
- Timing: Is the cough worse at a specific time of day or night?
- Severity: How severe is the cough?
In addition to these questions, it would be essential to ask about the patient’s medical history, including any pre-existing conditions, allergies, and medications, as well as any recent travel history and exposure to environmental irritants.
- What physical aspects would have been completed as part of the physical exam and why? Include the diagnostics that you would order and rationale.
As part of the physical exam, the healthcare provider would likely perform a chest exam to assess the lungs for any abnormalities, such as wheezing or crackles. The provider would also check the patient’s vital signs, including blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation. The diagnostics that would be ordered include a chest x-ray, pulmonary function tests, and sputum culture to assess for any underlying respiratory conditions.
- Based on the medical history and physical exam, what is the most likely cause of his cough?
Based on the medical history and physical exam, the most likely cause of the patient’s cough is a side effect of the medication lisinopril. Lisinopril is an ACE inhibitor commonly used to treat hypertension that can cause a persistent dry cough as a side effect. The patient’s symptoms of a dry hacking cough that did not improve with antitussives and allergy medications, along with the recent initiation of lisinopril, support this diagnosis.
- What other possible diagnoses should be considered and why?
Other possible diagnoses that should be considered include upper respiratory tract infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and lung cancer. Upper respiratory tract infection can cause a cough, but it is usually accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, sore throat, and nasal congestion. COPD and asthma are chronic respiratory conditions that can cause coughing, shortness of breath, and wheezing. Lung cancer can also present with a persistent cough, particularly in smokers or individuals with a history of environmental exposures.
- Are there any other tests that should be completed before producing a diagnosis? Why or why not?
Before producing a diagnosis, it would be essential to rule out other potential causes of the cough, such as COPD, asthma, or lung cancer. Additional tests such as a CT scan or bronchoscopy may be necessary to evaluate the lungs further and identify any underlying respiratory conditions.
- What is the treatment for this patient, including education?
The treatment for this patient would be to discontinue lisinopril and switch to an alternative medication for hypertension. The patient should also receive education on the potential side effects of medications, the importance of monitoring for adverse effects, and the need to report any new or persistent symptoms to their healthcare provider. The patient may also benefit from supportive care such as cough suppressants, hydration, and rest.
Part 2: Women’s Health
- Which federal agencies may be