Pediatric nursing immunization 800 words due 1/18/2020
- Meningitis is a serious infection that can cause inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Vaccination is the best way to protect against meningitis. There are several vaccines available that provide protection against meningitis, including the meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4), meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (MenB), and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The benefits of taking these vaccines include the prevention of serious illness, hospitalization, and death from meningitis. Individuals who should receive the vaccine include all children at the age of 11-12 years, with a booster dose at age 16. Also, individuals who are at high risk for meningitis, such as those with certain medical conditions or travel to areas with increased risk of meningitis, should receive the vaccine. The route of administration for the meningococcal conjugate vaccine is intramuscular, while the meningococcal serogroup B vaccine and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine can be given intramuscularly or subcutaneously.
- It is important to wait to vaccinate a child who is immunosuppressed or acutely ill because these conditions can weaken the immune system, making the child more vulnerable to adverse effects of the vaccine. Vaccination during an acute illness can lead to complications such as fever and seizures. It can also reduce the effectiveness of the vaccine, as the immune system may not be able to produce a sufficient response. An evidence-based practice article published in the Journal of Pediatrics recommends that immunosuppressed individuals receive all age-appropriate vaccines but may need to be revaccinated once their immune system recovers.
- Three vaccines that are given subcutaneously include the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, varicella vaccine, and yellow fever vaccine. The rationale for giving these vaccines subcutaneously is that they are less likely to cause a severe reaction or injury if administered subcutaneously. Giving a vaccine by the incorrect route of administration can impact the efficacy and absorption. For example, if a vaccine intended to be given intramuscularly is given subcutaneously, it may not be absorbed as effectively, resulting in a reduced immune response. The benefits of giving a vaccine subcutaneously or intramuscularly depend on the vaccine and the individual’s age and medical history.
- Some allergies that would contraindicate the administration of a vaccine include anaphylactic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine or to a vaccine component, severe allergic reaction to gelatin or neomycin, and severe allergy to baker’s yeast. The frequency of anaphylactic reactions to vaccines is rare, with the incidence being less than one case per million doses for most vaccines. An evidence-based practice article published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases recommends that individuals with a history of severe allergic reactions to vaccines or vaccine components should be evaluated by an allergist to determine the appropriate course of action.