Hematologic blood unit | Nursing homework help
Chapter 32: Assessment of Hematologic Function & Treatment Modalities
- Pre-transfusion assessments include checking the patient’s vital signs, confirming blood transfusion orders, verifying the patient’s identity, and obtaining informed consent. Nursing care involves explaining the procedure to the patient, assessing for signs of transfusion reaction, and monitoring vital signs during the transfusion.
- Nursing care involved when initiating a blood transfusion includes verifying the blood product, checking the patient’s identity, starting the transfusion slowly, and monitoring for any adverse reactions. Additional checks before hanging and starting the blood transfusion include verifying the compatibility of the blood product and the patient, verifying the expiration date of the blood product, and ensuring that the blood product has been properly stored.
- Nursing care involved following completion of a blood transfusion includes monitoring the patient for adverse reactions, documenting the transfusion in the patient’s medical record, and disposing of the equipment used for the transfusion properly.
- Signs and symptoms of transfusion reactions may include fever, chills, itching, hives, shortness of breath, chest or back pain, and hypotension.
- If the nurse suspects the patient is having a transfusion reaction, the transfusion should be stopped immediately, and the healthcare provider should be notified.
Chapter 33: Management of Patients with Nonmalignant Hematologic Disorders
- Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough red blood cells to carry oxygen to tissues. Common causes of anemia include blood loss, decreased red blood cell production, and increased red blood cell destruction.
- Risk factors for anemia include poor diet, chronic illness, pregnancy, blood loss, and genetics.
- Signs and symptoms of anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and rapid heartbeat.
- Lab values used to diagnose anemia include hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell count.
- Iron-deficiency anemia is a type of anemia caused by a deficiency of iron, which is needed to produce hemoglobin.
- The primary treatment method for iron-deficiency anemia is iron supplementation. Patient teaching points regarding this treatment modality include taking the medication as prescribed, taking with vitamin C to enhance absorption, and warning patients of common side effects like constipation.
- Foods high in iron that we should recommend include red meat, fish, poultry, beans, and leafy green vegetables.
- Megaloblastic anemias develop due to a deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid.
- Risk factors for folic acid deficiency anemia include poor diet, alcoholism, pregnancy, and certain medications.
- Pernicious anemia is a type of megaloblastic anemia caused by a deficiency of vitamin B12.
- Signs and symptoms of pernicious anemia may include weakness, fatigue, tingling in the hands and feet, and difficulty walking.
- Treatment for folic acid deficiency and pernicious anemias includes supplementation with vitamin B12 or folic acid. Patient teaching points regarding this treatment modality include taking the medication as prescribed, warning patients of common side effects like nausea and diarrhea, and ensuring that the patient receives adequate intake of these vitamins through diet.
- Foods that are high in folic acid or vitamin B12 include fortified cereals, leafy green vegetables, eggs, dairy products, and meat.
- Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder in which the body produces abnormal hemoglobin, causing red blood cells to become missh