Week 1 discussion 1 advance phisiology and pathophysiology
Calcium and phosphate are two important minerals that are hormonally regulated by the parathyroid hormone (PTH) and Calcitriol. PTH is released from the parathyroid glands when calcium levels in the blood drop below normal, which stimulates increased absorption of calcium from the gut and reabsorption of calcium from bones. This helps to raise circulating levels back up to homeostasis. Similarly, a decreased level of circulating calcitriol leads to an increase in PTH release as well.
Hypercalcemia occurs when there is too much calcium present in the body, typically due to an overproduction or oversecretion of PTH or calcitriol. Symptoms can include dehydration, nausea, vomiting and confusion/drowsiness due to electrolyte imbalances caused by hypercalcemia. Diagnosis can be confirmed through laboratory tests such as serum calcium levels or imaging studies like X-rays if necessary; treatment usually consists of medications such as bisphosphonates or corticosteroids to reduce bone resorption plus intravenous fluids for hydration.