- The epidemiologic triad is a model that is commonly used to explain the interaction of the host, the agent, and the environment in causing disease. In the hospital setting, healthcare workers, including nurses, are exposed to various infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Common diagnoses in the acute care setting include pneumonia, sepsis, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections, among others. In the community setting, common health issues are influenced by environmental factors such as pollution, lifestyle choices, and infectious agents. Examples of community health issues include obesity, heart disease, and diabetes.
When a nurse is providing care to someone in the community or in their home, the epidemiologic triad may differ. In the community, the environment may play a more significant role in the development of health issues. For instance, people who live in areas with high levels of pollution are more likely to develop respiratory problems. In contrast, when a nurse is providing care to someone in their home, the host may play a more significant role in the development of health issues. For instance, elderly patients with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to infections.
The nurse may have more control in the hospital setting than in the community setting because the hospital setting is more controlled, and nurses are more knowledgeable about the prevention and control of infectious diseases.
- The data presented regarding obesity in America in the Ethical Connection feature on page 118 shows that obesity is a growing public health concern. Community health nurses have a crucial role to play in community nutrition. They can educate people about healthy eating habits, encourage people to engage in physical activity, and advocate for policies that support healthy living. By promoting healthy lifestyles and working with individuals, families, and communities, community health nurses can help to prevent and manage obesity and other related health issues.
- The causes of increases in healthcare costs in recent years include the aging population, the prevalence of chronic diseases, expensive medical technologies, and an increase in demand for healthcare services. In the clinical setting, some examples of factors that contribute to high healthcare costs include overuse of diagnostic tests, unnecessary hospital readmissions, and inappropriate use of medications. Nurses can help to cut down on costs related to these factors by advocating for evidence-based practice, promoting patient education and self-care, and coordinating care across different healthcare settings.
- The causes of morbidity and mortality in other countries are different than in the United States because of differences in healthcare infrastructure, social determinants of health, and prevalence of infectious diseases. In less developed countries, health issues may be related to a lack of basic amenities such as clean water, sanitation, and hygiene. In contrast, in developed countries, health issues may be related to lifestyle choices and chronic diseases. The types of services and interventions needed in less developed countries to help with their health issues include the provision of basic healthcare services, public health education, and access to clean water and sanitation facilities.
Peters, D. H., Garg, A., Bloom, G., Walker, D. G., Brieger, W. R., & Rahman, M. H. (2008). Poverty and access to health care in developing countries. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1136(1), 161-171.
Williams, D. R., & Jackson, P. B. (2005). Social sources of racial disparities in health. Health Affairs, 24(2), 325-334.
- Hi, I agree with your post regarding the important role of community health nurses in preventing and managing obesity. As you mentioned, community health nurses can educate people about healthy eating habits, encourage people to engage in physical activity, and advocate for policies that support healthy living. They can also work with individuals,