Communicable disease and infectious disease 1.
Communicable and infectious diseases are health conditions that are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. The spread of these diseases occurs when the microorganisms are transferred from an infected person or an infected animal to another person. These diseases can be fatal, and their effects can be long-lasting. The purpose of this paper is to define communicable and infectious diseases and discuss the principles related to their occurrence and transmission. This paper will also describe and discuss the three focus areas in Healthy People 2020 objectives that apply to communicable and infectious diseases. Finally, this paper will describe and discuss the epidemiological aspects of a chosen communicable and infectious disease.
Definition of Communicable and Infectious Disease and the Chosen Condition
Communicable diseases are conditions that are caused by microorganisms and can be spread from one person to another. These diseases are contagious and can spread through contact with an infected person or animal, through the air, or through contaminated food or water. Examples of communicable diseases include influenza, tuberculosis, and malaria. On the other hand, infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms that can be transmitted through contact with an infected person, animal, or contaminated surfaces. Examples of infectious diseases include hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, and chickenpox.
The chosen communicable and infectious disease for this paper is tuberculosis (TB). TB is an airborne communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease mainly affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body such as the kidneys, spine, and brain. TB is highly contagious and can spread through coughing, sneezing, or talking by an infected person. The symptoms of TB include cough, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and night sweats.
Principles Related to the Occurrence and Transmission of Tuberculosis
The occurrence and transmission of TB are related to several principles. First, the transmission of TB occurs when a person inhales droplets containing the bacteria that are released into the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks. Therefore, the principle of airborne transmission is critical in the occurrence of TB. Second, TB is more likely to occur in individuals with weakened immune systems such as people living with HIV/AIDS, malnourished individuals, and those with chronic illnesses such as diabetes. Therefore, the principle of susceptibility is another critical principle related to the occurrence of TB. Third, social and economic factors such as poverty, overcrowding, and inadequate healthcare facilities contribute to the occurrence and transmission of TB. Therefore, the principle of social determinants of health is another critical principle related to the occurrence of TB.
Healthy People 2020 Objectives that Apply to Tuberculosis
Healthy People 2020 objectives are a set of health objectives that provide a framework for promoting and improving the health of individuals in the United States. The objectives are based on a set of determinants of health such as social and economic factors, health behaviors, and health services. Three focus areas in Healthy People 2020 that apply to TB are communicable diseases, immunization and infectious diseases, and social determinants.
The objective for communicable diseases is to reduce the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases such as tuberculosis. The objective aims to increase the number of people vaccinated against these diseases to reduce their transmission and occurrence. The objective for immunization and infectious diseases is to increase the vaccination coverage among populations at risk of infectious diseases such as TB. The objective aims to increase the access to and availability of vaccines to reduce the occurrence and transmission of infectious diseases. The objective for social determinants is to reduce the health disparities among populations affected by infectious diseases such as TB. The objective aims to address the social and economic factors that contribute to the occurrence and transmission of infectious diseases.