Discussion: Maladaptive Responses to Immune Disorders
The selected immune disorders are HIV and psoriasis.
HIV is a viral infection that attacks the body’s immune system, specifically CD4 cells, and impairs their ability to fight infections. The virus enters the CD4 cells, replicates, and destroys them, leading to a weakened immune system. The compensatory mechanism triggered by HIV is the activation of the immune system, resulting in chronic immune activation and inflammation, which can lead to the development of AIDS. Maladaptive responses to HIV include opportunistic infections and the development of certain cancers, such as Kaposi sarcoma.
Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the skin, causing red, scaly patches to form. The pathophysiology of psoriasis involves a hyperproliferation of keratinocytes in the skin, which leads to the formation of plaques. The compensatory mechanism triggered by psoriasis is an immune response, which involves the activation of T cells and other immune cells in the skin, resulting in inflammation. Maladaptive responses to psoriasis include joint inflammation, or psoriatic arthritis, and an increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
The factor selected is behavior. Behaviors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and poor diet can impact the pathophysiology of both HIV and psoriasis. In the case of HIV, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can lead to an increase in chronic immune activation and inflammation, which can further weaken the immune system. Poor diet can also weaken the immune system, making the individual more susceptible to infections. In psoriasis, smoking has been shown to exacerbate the condition, making it more severe and harder to manage. Excessive alcohol consumption and poor diet can also worsen the condition by increasing inflammation in the body.