Influence of exchange rate risk to the cashflows of apple inc
U.S. firms can use a variety of hedging instruments to protect against exchange rate risk. Some of the most common methods include forward contracts, options, currency swaps, and Money Market Hedge (MMH).
Forward Contracts are agreements between two parties to buy or sell an asset at a specific price and on a specific date in the future. As such, they provide protection from movements in foreign currency exchange rates.
Options are another popular way for companies to hedge against exchange rate risk. Options give the buyer the right but not the obligation to buy or sell something at a predetermined price on or before a specified date in the future. If a company believes that its currency will lose value relative to another currency in the future, it can purchase put options on that foreign currency which gives them protection if their prediction turns out correct and there is depreciation in the foreign currency’s value relative to theirs.
Currency Swaps also offer U.S firms some form of protection against changes in exchange rates; these are agreements between two parties who agree to swap fixed interest payments denominated in one currency for payments denominated by another at pre-arranged intervals over an agreed period of time. This type of instrument effectively locks-in current market prices thus providing stability from fluctuations brought about by fluctuating currencies values going forward into the agreement’s duration .
Finally, Money Market Hedge (MMH), is another way U.S firms can attempt to offset their exposure risks due foreign currencies; this involves finding hedge ratios with equivalent values (in US Dollars) for transactions involving different currencies then converting them back into their native denomination once converted equivalents have been found.. With MMH companies attempt not just minimize losses due changing exchange rate but also make gains if favorable movement occur when exchanging funds from one curreny denomination into another.