Purnell model for population sub-group
Cultural influences on health and decision-making can include geographical location, religion, race/ethnicity, gender identity, sexual orientation, income level and family dynamics. For example, where someone lives may determine what type of medical care they have access to or the types of food available to them. Religion can influence decisions a person makes about healthcare such as whether to use contraception or not. Race/ethnicity may influence how comfortable a person feels discussing health issues with their doctor or accessing certain services within their community. Gender identity can shape a person’s experience seeking healthcare due to discrimination and barriers from providers. Sexual orientation can be a factor in the types of treatments that are available for conditions like HIV/AIDS. Income level affects access to healthcare options because cost is often an issue when seeking treatment. Lastly, family dynamics can also play a role in health decisions if individuals feel obligated to make choices based on their families’ values rather than their own needs and desires.