Pancreatic cancer case study | Nursing homework help
Pancreatic cancer is a difficult condition to treat and can often be fatal. Treatment options vary depending on the stage of the cancer, as well as the patient’s overall health. The most common treatments for pancreatic cancer include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Surgery: Surgery is usually recommended for patients with early stage pancreatic cancer, in which the tumor has not spread beyond the pancreas. The most common type of surgery used to treat this condition is a Whipple procedure, in which part or all of the pancreas is removed along with related structures such as the gallbladder, part of the stomach and some small intestines (National Cancer Institute, 2021). Depending on where exactly in the pancreas a tumor is located, different types of surgeries may be conducted such as distal pancreatectomy or total pancreatectomy (Mayo Clinic Staff 2021). Surgery may also be used if chemotherapy and/or radiation have failed to destroy a tumor (National Cancer Institute 2021).
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves using drugs to target and kill cancer cells. It can be used before surgery to shrink tumors so that they are more accessible during operations; after surgery to destroy any remaining cancer cells; or if other treatments are not an option due to advanced stages of pancreatic cancer (Khan et al., 2017). Multiple drugs are typically given in combination intravenously over various intervals throughout treatment duration depending on one’s response. As it is systemic therapy effects are unpredictable though nausea , vomiting , hair loss &other organ toxicity may occur due usage of high doses(Hirsch et al., 2012 ).
Radiation Therapy: Radiation Therapy uses high doses X-ray beams released from machine external body target &destroy malignant cells .It can be given once after surgical removal for remaining tumors &in combination with chemotherapy .Side effect include fatigue , skin changes , nausea etc.( Department Of Radiation Oncology 2017 ).
Pathophysiology Of Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma arises from exocrine gland within making up majority cases (~95%) associated with this condition . A mutation within KRAS gene leads transformation normal cell into malignant one causing uncontrolled proliferation causing invasion surrounding tissue leading metastasis distant organs.(Vogelstein et al., 2013) A majority association lies smoking linked through multiple synergistic factors inducing inflammation inducing chronic injury leading expression genes involved Transformation process such as TP53& APC( Tran‐Thanh et al.,2014 ) Disease progression occurs following stepwise fashion wherein symptoms appear at latter stages due infiltration blood vessels by malignant cells preventing proper circulation within affected tissues ultimately resulting mortality associated provided no intervention done prior coming too late.(Ahmed el at 2016 ) Patient Education For Pancreatic Cancer Patients should begin by understanding his diagnosis which could help him prepare himself better coping Strategy .He should outline what he knows about it including causes ,treatment options concerns& potential outcomes from treatment decision made so he has complete understanding his disease process when looking at worst-case scenario plans.(Kumar 2017) He should start educating himself about diet modification associated risk factors minimizing future risks such reduction intake tobacco products increase daily water intake exercising regularly maintain healthy weight eating healthy food items reducing stress levels playing relaxing music listening favorite podcasts etc all these things will help lead healthier life ahead notwithstanding provide comfort during challenging times ahead..(American Gastroenterological Association 2018 ) He should consult doctor nutritional supplements recommended currently prescribed medications understand side effects occur taking medication ongoing follow ups goals set forth ensure safe progression towards recovery… (Ahmed el at 2016 ).