The low number of Black women who hold leadership roles is mainly due to gender-based barriers to professional growth and advancement. According to Cirincione-Ulezi (2020), stereotypes and lack of diversity are the main obstacles to Black women achieving leadership positions. These obstacles vary by industry. Black women have less obstacles to achieving academic leadership roles. However, women who are interested in engineering or politics will face tremendous hurdles to gaining leadership positions (Cirincione–Ulezi 2020). This study has many strengths. It examines the topic through the eyes of Black women in leadership and in pursuing these positions across many fields and industries. Additionally, Cirincione-Ulezi 2020 noted that there are more Black women in leadership roles within Applied Behavioral Analysis. This sector is the hardest, and it shows that Black women are able to compete against men in areas where they have traditionally been dominant. Research shows that stereotypes are another obstacle for Black women who want to be leaders. Studies show that stereotypes pose a major obstacle to Black women pursuing leadership roles and those who want to rise to the top. Research shows that Black women have been relegated to subordinate positions in their workplaces and society. This has had an adverse impact on their ability to lead (Ryan 2020). The stereotype is often the catalyst for some of America’s most cruel acts. Ryan, 2020, describes racism, sexism and classism in America as the harsh behavior that resulted from the rise of stereotypes about black women. Black women’s leadership is a great example of not only their survival strategies but also how they create their lives. A significant obstacle to Black women’s leadership is not only preconceptions but also inaccessibility to mentors and leaders. In leadership roles, Black women have a higher chance of advancing than other women, compared to those held by women from other races. According to Morgan et. al. (2018), black women have a greater difficulty in achieving leadership positions than other women due to the lack of mentoring support. In idealistic terms, all leaders should have a mentor within society and education. This is one of the top policy issues, as it shows that black women face greater obstacles to leadership success because they lack mentors. This study highlights policy concerns about mentoring women at the United States, and around the world.
Leadership experiences by Black women
Black women who held leadership roles had poorer experiences than other women. Abdalla (2018) asserts that Black women of Color in the United States are subject to the same discrimination and prejudices as any other African woman in society. This prejudice is not universal. Teachers are among the most difficult jobs for women. There is a dramatic drop in the proportion of black women who hold leadership positions in minority-led teaching organizations. Abdalla (2018) says that the disparities in experiences between black women and other races in leadership positions in the United States are a result of a long history of oppression. Black women who hold leadership roles are constantly challenged. This fight is mostly about retaining their position in an environment that encourages women from other races to pursue such positions (Morgan and al. 2018, 2018).