He is an African American of 52 years old. He presented with trouble breathing and symptoms such as edema in lower limbs that lasted for two weeks, projectile vomit often following meals over the past three days, diminished taste sensitivity and decreased urine production during the three previous days. Additional concerns included frequent eye strain and severe physical weakness. His condition has made him a hypertensive and diabetic patient since 10 years ago. He adheres to all antihypertensive medication and uses Glucophage orally as a diabetic. There is no evidence of her ever having smoked or consumed alcohol. His first admission to the medical facility was for a medical issue. He had never been through any other surgeries. The client does not suffer from any food or medication allergies. Physical examination revealed that the patient had significant edema in his lower limbs. He also showed difficulty breathing and a substantial amount of use of his auxiliary muscles. The white crystals found on the neck, head, and neck were consistent with uremic frost. The patient was admitted with the following vital signs: temperature 98.5°F; respiration rate 28/minute, pulse rate 99 beats/minute and blood pressure 180/92mmHg. Further samples were sent for diagnosis and testing to the laboratory.
Laboratory tests showed that Mr. X had a blood count of 30. His Creatinine, Calcium and Creatinine levels were 6.23 and 6 respectively. Dr. X confirmed the diagnosis of chronic renal disease. It is associated with a progressive decline in renal function and high glomerular flow rate. CKD can be seen in elderly people who are at high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as diabetes or hypertension. The reduction of glomerular flow rate is also accelerated by diabetic nephropathy (Donald, et al. 2018, 2018). The disorder effects the glomeruli as well as the tubules and interstitial arteries. Complex and interconnected events are responsible for scarring and fibrisis. Inflammatory cells invade damaged kidneys. The proliferation and death of inner renal cells is caused by the subsequent processes of necrosis and apoptosis. Finally, the kidneys’ natural architecture is replaced by the extracellular matrix. It was recommended that the patient initiate renal replacement therapy. Following his consent, an arteriovenous transplant was placed and the patient began renal replacement therapy (Vaidya, 2021).