George Washington, as president, established five precedents: appointing an judge, selecting and leading a cabinet, commanding the army, speaking to the president in the title Mr. President, and not accepting lifelong positions. Washington also had concerns about federal judges. Washington was responsible for nominating qualified candidates for these positions. Some judges are only there for a couple of years, then they move on to other careers or retire. Washington appointed 38 federal judges (Gerhardt 21,). At the beginning of the federal government, it was not clear who would handle the many tasks required to put the government’s goals into practice. These responsibilities could only be performed by experienced people. Washington appointed close friends to his personal secretary position. Only he had the power to choose.
It was vital to the growth and formation of American political parties that the Federal Constitution of 1787 was approved. Alexander Hamilton was the Finance Minister and federalists favored central control over state autonomy. Thomas Jefferson, the Foreign Minister, preferred state sovereignty. Later party battles saw federalists unite behind the country’s business sector while those opposed grouped together behind those who supported the agrarian society.
The XYZ Affair created tensions between France and America. This controversy was responsible for the American Civil War, as well as fueling sectionalism and nullification. Even though France was eventually at peace, the XYZ Affair had profound implications for the United States. For their handling of the crisis, President John Adams and Congress received harsh criticism from the press. The Alien and Sedition Acts, which make it illegal to criticize government officials in the media, were created as a response. Virginia and Kentucky were two southern states that passed resolutions declaring the laws invalid and asserting their right to “nullify.” American Civil War is likely to be caused by the nullification doctrine.
It is also known as the “second awakening” because of the religious movements that ruled the United States between the 18th and 19th centuries. The Northeastern and Midwest areas were the hardest hit, even though the entire nation was affected. Revivals allowed these families the opportunity to hear God’s words and also enabled them to get involved in rural life. Charles Finney, one of the most determined commanders in the Second Awakening’s second wave was a great example.