Chapter 15: Multiple choice questions

Question 1

What is the difference between interval/ratio and ordinal variables?

a) The distance between categories is equal across the range of interval/ratio data

b) Ordinal data can be rank ordered, but interval/ratio data cannot

c) Interval/ratio variables contain only two categories

d) Ordinal variables have a fixed zero point, whereas interval/ratio variables do not

Question 2

What is the difference between a bar chart and a histogram?

a) A histogram does not show the entire range of scores in a distribution

b) Bar charts are circular, whereas histograms are square

c) There are no gaps between the bars on a histogram

d) Bar charts represents numbers, whereas histograms represent percentages

Question 3

What is an outlier?

a) A type of variable that cannot be quantified

b) A compulsive liar who is proud to be gay

c) A score that is left out of the analysis because of missing data

d) An extreme value at either end of a distribution

Question 4

What is the function of a contingency table, in the context of bivariate analysis?

a) It shows the results you would expect to find by chance

b) It summarises the frequencies of two variables so that they can be compared

c) It lists the different levels of p value for tests of significance

d) It compares the results you might get from various statistical tests

Question 5

If there were a perfect positive correlation between two interval/ratio variables, the Pearson’s r test would give a correlation coefficient of:

a) – 0.328

b) +1

c) +0.328

d) – 1

Question 6

What is the name of the test that is used to assess the relationship between two ordinal variables?

a) Spearman’s rho

b) Phi

c) Cramer’s V

d) Chi square

Question 7

When might it be appropriate to conduct a multivariate analysis test?

a) If the relationship between two variables might be spurious

b) If there could be an intervening variable

c) If a third variable might be moderating the relationship

d) All of the above

Question 8

What is meant by a “spurious” relationship between two variables?

a) One that is so ridiculously illogical it cannot possibly be true

b) An apparent relationship that is so curious it demands further attention

c) A relationship that appears to be true because each variable is related to a third one

d) One that produces a perfect negative correlation on a scatter diagram

Question 9

A test of statistical significance indicates how confident the researcher is about:

a) The inter-coder reliability of their structured interview schedule

b) Passing their driving test

c) Understanding the difference between bivariate and multivariate analysis

d) Generalizing their findings from the sample to the population

Question 10

Setting the p level at 0.01 increases the chances of making a:

a) Type I error

b) Type II error

c) Type III error

d) All of the above