Reply must be at least 200-300 words. For each thread, you must support your assertions with at least 2 citations from sources such as your textbook, peer-reviewed journal articles, and the Bible.
Textbook: Vito, G. F., & Higgins, G. E. (2015). Practical program evaluation for criminal justice. Waltham, MA: Elsevier. ISBN: 9781455777709.
Doing No Harm
According to McCord (2003), researchers seek evidence to demonstrate that a prevention program is effective but should not rely on asking if it works as some treatments cause harm. McCord (2003) stressed that safety concerns are as important as efficacy. Furthermore, McCord (2003) believed that social harm may come at a higher cost than physical harm. McCord (2003) claimed there was a strong bias in reporting adverse effects of social programs that caused harm. Despite a prevention program’s best efforts, it can still cause some potential harm.
Khorasheh et al. (2019) recommended that more evaluations and research should be conducted on harm reduction training for police officers. The researchers’ viewpoints are in alignment with the Bible. Luke 10:19 provides, “I have given you authority to trample on snakes and scorpions and to overcome all the power of the enemy; nothing will harm you” (The NIV Study Bible, 1995). Satan is the enemy. Even though the body perishes, the soul does not. Thus, if a believer dies, the spirit lives on. Drugs, for example, can be viewed as an enemy, and the prevention program is the harm reduction plan. D.A.R.E. is an example of a drug prevention program. Part of a police officer’s duties is to respond to calls for service and protection of the people. Apart from rogue police officers, most will have a “do no harm” value system.
Psalm 82:3-4 states, “Defend the cause of the weak and fatherless; maintain the rights of the poor and oppressed. Rescue the weak and needy; deliver them from the hand of the wicked” (The NIV Study Bible, 1995). Throughout the Bible there are similar verses that prove that man should do the right thing and help fellow men. Man is not to merely listen or give advice to someone who is weak, but to do something about it, which requires an action to be taken. The action in this case would be through a prevention program. In the Bible verse, there are action words listed, and God expects Christians to act not just verbalize.
Vito and Higgins (2015) further stress that the aim is to prevent harm while promoting a research design that will produce relevant and valid results. There can be political pressure along the process as some may believe that the benefits of the program would outweigh the potential harm caused (Vito & Higgins, 2015). The evaluator should seek to maximize the benefits, but also minimize any potential harm that could occur (Vito & Higgins, 2015). Objectivity should be maintained to allow the evaluator’s credibility remains intact (Vito & Higgins, 2015). Vito and Higgins (2015) discussed problem-oriented policing (POP), which requires that a systematic process for addressing community crime problems. In Baltimore County, Maryland and Newport News, Virginia, crime, and the fear of crime were significantly reduced because of police officers concentrating on the underlying causes of crime. Braga (2017) pointed out that perceptions of citizens regarding police crime control effectiveness were found to be related to police legitimacy. Furthermore, Braga (2017) advised that police departments must be careful in establishing crime prevention policies without generating harm to the community.